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Author Hall, A.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acute Artificial Light Diminishes Central Texas Anuran Calling Behavior Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication The American Midland Naturalist Abbreviated Journal Amer. Midland Naturalist  
  Volume 175 Issue 2 Pages 183-193  
  Keywords Animals; frogs; toads; amphibians; anurans; ecology; wildlife; Texas  
  Abstract Male anuran (frog and toad) advertisement calls associate with fitness and can respond to environmental cues such as rain and air temperature. Moonlight is thought to generally decrease call behaviors – perhaps as a response to increased perceived risk of predation – and this study sought to determine if artificial lighting produces a similar pattern. Using a handheld spotlight, light was experimentally introduced to natural anuran communities in ponds and streams. Custom call surveys where then used to measure anuran calls in paired unlit and lit conditions at six locations in central Texas. Among seven species heard, the number of frogs calling and call index declined in response to the acute light input. Local weather conditions could not explain differences between numbers of frogs calling between species, sites, survey order, or lighting order suggesting the main effect on number calling was light treatment. It appears acute artificial light alone can change calling behavior within several species in natural, mixed species assemblages.  
  Address Department of Biology, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019; allopatry(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher BioOne Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language (down) English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-0031 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1455  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Spitschan, M.; Aguirre, G.K.; Brainard, D.H.; Sweeney, A.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Variation of outdoor illumination as a function of solar elevation and light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages 26756  
  Keywords Skyglow; Measurements; light pollution; daylight; twilight; sky brightness; spectral irradiance; CIE  
  Abstract The illumination of the environment undergoes both intensity and spectral changes during the 24 h cycle of a day. Daylight spectral power distributions are well described by low-dimensional models such as the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) daylight model, but the performance of this model in non-daylight regimes is not characterised. We measured downwelling spectral irradiance across multiple days in two locations in North America: One rural location (Cherry Springs State Park, PA) with minimal anthropogenic light sources, and one city location (Philadelphia, PA). We characterise the spectral, intensity and colour changes and extend the existing CIE model for daylight to capture twilight components and the spectrum of the night sky.  
  Address Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Nature Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language (down) English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27272736 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1464  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Campaign to Protect Rural England url  openurl
  Title Night Blight: Mapping England’s light pollution and dark skies Type Report
  Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Skyglow; Remote Sensing; Artificial light at night; United Kingdom; Great Britain  
  Abstract We can now present the most accurate ever picture of how much light is spilling up into Britain’s night skies. Detailed interactive maps have been created for England

showing districts, counties, National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONBs) and, at a wider scale, National Character Areas. Besides these, there are high-level maps available for Scotland and Wales, so that we can now

present the most accurate ever picture of how much light is spilling up into Britain’s night sky.
 
  Address Campaign to Protect Rural England, 5-11 Lavington Street, London SE1 0NZ, United Kingdom; info(at)cpre.org.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Campaign to Protect Rural England Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language (down) English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1468  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Schroer, S.; Hölker, F. url  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Impact of Lighting on Flora and Fauna Type Book Chapter
  Year 2016 Publication Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-33  
  Keywords Ecology; Lighting; Artificial light at night; ALAN; Plants; Animals; review  
  Abstract Technology, especially artificial light at night (ALAN), often has unexpected impacts on the environment. This chapter addresses both the perception of light by various organisms and the impact of ALAN on flora and fauna. The responses to ALAN are subdivided into the effects of light intensity, color spectra, and duration and timing of illumination. The ways organisms perceive light can be as variable as the habitats they live in. ALAN often interferes with natural light information. It is rarely neutral and has significant impacts beyond human perception. For example, UV light reflection of generative plant parts or the direction of light is used by many organisms as information for foraging, finding spawning sites, or communication. Contemporary outdoor lighting often lacks sustainable planning, even though the protection of species, habitat, and human well-being could be improved by adopting simple technical measures. The increasing use of ALAN with high intensities in the blue part of the spectrum, e.g., fluorescent light and LEDs, is discussed as a critical trend. Blue light is a major circadian signal in higher vertebrates and can substantially impact the orientation of organisms such as numerous insect species. A better understanding of how various types and sources of artificial light, and how organisms perceive ALAN, will be an important step towards more sustainable lighting. Such knowledge is the basis for sustainable lighting planning and the development of solutions to protect biodiversity from the effects of outdoor lighting. Maps that describe the rapid changes in ALAN are urgently needed. In addition, measures are required to reduce the increasing use and intensity of ALAN in more remote areas as signaling thresholds in flora and fauna at night are often close to moonlight intensity and far below streetlight levels.  
  Address Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587, Berlin, Germany; schroer(at)igb-berlin.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language (down) English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-00295-8 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1470  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gutierrez-Escolar, A.; Castillo-Martinez, A.; Gomez-Pulido, J.; Gutierrez-Martinez, J.-M.; González-Seco, E.; Stapic, Z. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A review of energy efficiency label of street lighting systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Energy Efficiency Abbreviated Journal Energy Efficiency  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-18  
  Keywords Energy; Energy Efficiency Index; Total Luminous Flux; Energy Efficiency Label; Electronic Ballast; Energy Performance Indicator; Lighting Project; Energy Efficiency Class; Energy Efficiency Level; Road Lighting; Active PowerLighting System; Wind Turbine; Current Energy Efficiency; Luminous Efficacy; Electricity Consumption; Kiviat diagram; Lamp; Light pollution; Pie chart; Dimming luminous flux; review  
  Abstract There are very few countries that have provisions addressing the energy efficiency of the whole street lighting system, such as Spain or the Netherlands. Nevertheless, there is not an agreement about how energy efficiency must be assessed. The Spanish Government contemplates it in the Royal Decree 1890/2008 with the goal of improving energy savings and efficiency. However, this has not obtained the expected results. Nowadays, energy efficiency of this kind of systems is assessed using a label. In the case of Spain, this label only assesses one magnitude. The contributions of this paper are two evaluation systems (kiviat diagram and pie chart) which assess five magnitudes: lamps, energy efficiency index, light pollution, renewable energy contribution, and harness of the luminous flux using dimming. After that, a survey was done to study several subjects: (1) if citizens are aware about the efficiency of street lighting systems, (2) whether the sample of colors used in the label is adequate, and (3) if our proposed systems could replace the current evaluation system. Finally, the paper finishes with the conclusions of the survey.  
  Address Department of Computer Sciences, Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Road Madrid-Barcelona, Km 33.6, Alcala de Henares, 28871, Spain  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language (down) English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1570-6478 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1471  
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