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Author Stockl, A.L.; O'Carroll, D.C.; Warrant, E.J.
Title Neural Summation in the Hawkmoth Visual System Extends the Limits of Vision in Dim Light Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 821-826
Keywords Vision; Animals
Abstract Most of the world's animals are active in dim light and depend on good vision for the tasks of daily life. Many have evolved visual adaptations that permit a performance superior to that of manmade imaging devices [1]. In insects, a major model visual system, nocturnal species show impressive visual abilities ranging from flight control [2, 3], to color discrimination [4, 5], to navigation using visual landmarks [6-8] or dim celestial compass cues [9, 10]. In addition to optical adaptations that improve their sensitivity in dim light [11], neural summation of light in space and time-which enhances the coarser and slower features of the scene at the expense of noisier finer and faster features-has been suggested to improve sensitivity in theoretical [12-14], anatomical [15-17], and behavioral [18-20] studies. How these summation strategies function neurally is, however, presently unknown. Here, we quantified spatial and temporal summation in the motion vision pathway of a nocturnal hawkmoth. We show that spatial and temporal summation combine supralinearly to substantially increase contrast sensitivity and visual information rate over four decades of light intensity, enabling hawkmoths to see at light levels 100 times dimmer than without summation. Our results reveal how visual motion is calculated neurally in dim light and how spatial and temporal summation improve sensitivity while simultaneously maximizing spatial and temporal resolution, thus extending models of insect motion vision derived predominantly from diurnal flies. Moreover, the summation strategies we have revealed may benefit manmade vision systems optimized for variable light levels [21].
Address Department of Biology, University of Lund, Solvegatan 35, 22362 Lund, Sweden
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26948877 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1374
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Author Kolláth, Z.; Dömény, A.; Kolláth, K.; Nagy, B.
Title Qualifying lighting remodelling in a Hungarian city based on light pollution effects Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 181 Issue Pages 46-51
Keywords Skyglow; Lighting
Abstract The public lighting system has been remodelled in several Hungarian cities. In some cases the majority of the old luminaries were fitted with high pressure sodium lamps and they were replaced with white LED lighting with a typical correlated colour temperature of about 4500 K. Therefore, these remodelling works provide a testbed for methods in measurements and modelling. We measured the luminance of the light domes of selected cities by DSLR photometry before and after the remodelling.

Thanks to the full cut off design of the new lighting fixtures we obtained a slight decrease even in the blue part of the sky dome spectra of a tested city. However, we have to note that this positive change is the result of the bad geometry (large ULR) of the previous lighting system. Based on Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations we provide a comparison of different indicators that can be used to qualify the remodelling, and to predict the possible changes in light pollution.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1375
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Author Hüppop, O.; Hüppop, K.; Dierschke, J.; Hill, R.
Title Bird collisions at an offshore platform in the North Sea Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Bird Study Abbreviated Journal Bird Study
Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 73-82
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract Capsule Collisions with offshore structures in the North Sea could account for the mortality of hundreds of thousands of nocturnally migrating birds.

Aims To assess, for the first time, the circumstances of mass fatalities at an offshore structure, including the species involved, their numbers, ages, body conditions and injuries.

Methods At an unmanned tall offshore research platform in the southeastern North Sea, bird corpses were collected on 160 visiting days from October 2003 to December 2007. Corpses were identified to species and kinds of injury, ages, and fat and muscle scores were determined. Nocturnal bird calls were recorded, identified to species and quantified. Local and large-scale weather parameters were also considered.

Results A total of 767 birds of 34 species, mainly thrushes, European Starlings and other passerines, were found at 45 visits. Most carcasses were in good body condition and young birds were not more affected than adults. Three quarters of 563 examined individuals had collision induced injuries. Birds in poor body condition were less likely to be collision victims than those in good condition. Mass collision events at the illuminated offshore structure coincided with increasingly adverse weather conditions and an increasing call intensity of nocturnal birds.

Conclusions Assuming an average of 150 dead birds per year at this single offshore structure and additionally assuming that a considerable proportion of the corpses were not found, we estimate that mortality at the 1000 + human structures in the North Sea could reach hundreds of thousands of birds. Since offshore industrialization will progress and collision numbers at offshore turbines will consequently increase considerably, we recommend reinforced measures to reduce bird strikes at offshore structures, especially in the light of substantial declines in some migrant species.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-3657 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1377
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Author Lee, S.; Cao, C.
Title Soumi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band Stray Light Characterization and Correction Using Calibration View Data Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 138
Keywords Instrumentation
Abstract The Soumi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB) nighttime imagery quality is affected by stray light contamination. In this study, we examined the relationship between the Earth scene stray light and the signals in VIIRS’s calibrators to better understand stray light characteristics and to improve upon the current correction method. Our analyses showed the calibrator signal to be highly predictive of Earth scene stray light and can provide additional stray light characteristics that are difficult to obtain from Earth scene data alone. In the current stray light correction regions (mid-to-high latitude), the stray light onset angles can be tracked by calibration view data to reduce correction biases. In the southern hemisphere, it is possible to identify the angular extent of the additional stray light feature in the calibration view data and develop a revised correction method to remove the additional stray light occurring during the southern hemisphere springtime. Outside of current stray light correction region, the analysis of calibration view data indicated occasional stray light contamination at low latitude and possible background biases caused by Moon illumination. As stray light affects a significant portion of nighttime scenes, further refinement in characterization and correction is important to ensure VIIRS DNB imagery quality for Soumi NPP and future missions.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1378
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Author Cao, Z.; Wu, Z.; Kuang, Y.; Huang, N.; Wang, M.
Title Coupling an Intercalibration of Radiance-Calibrated Nighttime Light Images and Land Use/Cover Data for Modeling and Analyzing the Distribution of GDP in Guangdong, China Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 108
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1379
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