|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author Tewolde, F.T.; Lu, N.; Shiina, K.; Maruo, T.; Takagaki, M.; Kozai, T.; Yamori, W.
Title Nighttime Supplemental LED Inter-lighting Improves Growth and Yield of Single-Truss Tomatoes by Enhancing Photosynthesis in Both Winter and Summer Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Frontiers in Plant Science Abbreviated Journal Front Plant Sci
Volume 7 Issue Pages 448
Keywords Plants; LED; fruit quality; lighting period; photosynthesis; plant factory; single-truss tomato; supplemental lighting; yield
Abstract Greenhouses with sophisticated environmental control systems, or so-called plant factories with solar light, enable growers to achieve high yields of produce with desirable qualities. In a greenhouse crop with high planting density, low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) at the lower leaves tends to limit plant growth, especially in the winter when the solar altitude and PPFD at the canopy are low and day length is shorter than in summer. Therefore, providing supplemental lighting to the lower canopy can increase year-round productivity. However, supplemental lighting can be expensive. In some places, the cost of electricity is lower at night, but the effect of using supplemental light at night has not yet been examined. In this study, we examined the effects of supplemental LED inter-lighting (LED inter-lighting hereafter) during the daytime or nighttime on photosynthesis, growth, and yield of single-truss tomato plants both in winter and summer. We used LED inter-lighting modules with combined red and blue light to illuminate lower leaves right after the first anthesis. The PPFD of this light was 165 mumol m(-2) s(-1) measured at 10 cm from the LED module. LED inter-lighting was provided from 4:00 am to 4:00 pm for the daytime treatments and from 10:00 pm to 10:00 am for the nighttime treatments. Plants exposed only to solar light were used as controls. Daytime LED inter-lighting increased the photosynthetic capacity of middle and lower canopy leaves, which significantly increased yield by 27% in winter; however, photosynthetic capacity and yield were not significantly increased during summer. Nighttime LED inter-lighting increased photosynthetic capacity in both winter and summer, and yield increased by 24% in winter and 12% in summer. In addition, nighttime LED inter-lighting in winter significantly increased the total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content of the tomato fruits, by 20 and 25%, respectively. Use of nighttime LED inter-lighting was also more cost-effective than daytime inter-lighting. Thus, nighttime LED inter-lighting can effectively improve tomato plant growth and yield with lower energy cost compared with daytime both in summer and winter.
Address Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University, Kashiwa, Japan; Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Frontiers Media S.A. Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1664-462X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27092163; PMCID:PMC4823311 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1434
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Xu, M.; He, C.; Liu, Z.; Dou, Y.
Title How Did Urban Land Expand in China between 1992 and 2015? A Multi-Scale Landscape Analysis Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 11 Issue 5 Pages e0154839
Keywords remote sensing
Abstract Effective and timely quantification of the spatiotemporal pattern of urban expansion in China is important for the assessment of its environmental effects. However, the dynamics of the most recent urban expansions in China since 2012 have not yet been adequately explained due to a lack of current information. In this paper, our objective was to quantify spatiotemporal patterns of urban expansion in China between 1992 and 2015. First, we extracted information on urban expansion in China between 1992 and 2015 by integrating nighttime light data, vegetation index data, and land surface temperature data. Then we analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of urban expansion at the national and regional scales, as well as at that of urban agglomerations. We found that China experienced a rapid and large-scale process of urban expansion between 1992 and 2015, with urban land increasing from 1.22 x 104 km2 to 7.29 x 104 km2, increasing in size nearly fivefold and with an average annual growth rate of 8.10%, almost 2.5 times as rapid as the global average. We also found that urban land in China expanded mainly by occupying 3.31 x 104 km2 of cropland, which comprised 54.67% of the total area of expanded urban land. Among the three modes of growth-infilling, edge expansion, and leapfrog-edge expansion was the main cause of cropland loss. Cropland loss resulting from edge expansion of urban land totalled 2.51 x 104 km2, accounting for over 75% of total cropland loss. We suggest that effective future management with respect to edge expansion of urban land is needed to protect cropland in China.
Address Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27144589; PMCID:PMC4856333 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1438
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Degen, T.; Mitesser, O.; Perkin, E.K.; Weiss, N.-S.; Oehlert, M.; Mattig, E.; Hölker, F.
Title Street lighting: sex-independent impacts on moth movement Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Biology
Abstract 1.Artificial lights have become an integral and welcome part of our urban and peri-urban environments. However, recent research has highlighted the potentially negative ecological consequences of ubiquitous artificial light. In particular, insects, especially moths, are expected to be negatively impacted by the presence of artificial lights. Previous research with light traps has shown a male-biased attraction to light in moths. 2.In this study, we sought to determine if street lights could limit moth dispersal and if there was any sex bias in attraction to light. More specifically, we aimed to determine sex specific attraction radii for moths to street lights. 3.We tested these hypotheses by collecting moths for two years at an experimental setup. To estimate the attraction radii we developed a Markov model and related it to the acquired data. 4.Utilizing multinomial statistics, we found that attraction rates to lights in the middle of the matrix were substantially lower than predicted by the null hypothesis of equal attraction level (0.44 times). With the Markov model, we estimated that a corner-light was 2.77 times more attractive than a wing-light with an equivalent attraction radius of c. 23m around each light. We found neither sexual differences in the attraction rate nor in the attraction radius of males and females. Since we captured three times more males than females, we conclude that sex ratios are representative of operational sex ratios or of different flight activities. 5.These results provide evidence for street lights to limit moth dispersal, and that they seem to act equally on male and female moths. Consequently, public lighting might divide a suitable landscape into many small habitats. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume i) that public lighting near hedges and bushes or field margins reduces the quality of these important habitat structures, and ii) that public lighting near important habitat structures but not interfering with local movement may affect moth movement between patches. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27146262 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1439
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Walch, O.J.; Cochran, A.; Forger, D.B.
Title A global quantification of “normal” sleep schedules using smartphone data Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Science Advances
Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages e1501705-e1501705
Keywords Human Health; Sleep; *Circadian Rhythm; smartphone; society
Abstract The influence of the circadian clock on sleep scheduling has been studied extensively in the laboratory; however, the effects of society on sleep remain largely unquantified. We show how a smartphone app that we have developed, ENTRAIN, accurately collects data on sleep habits around the world. Through mathematical modeling and statistics, we find that social pressures weaken and/or conceal biological drives in the evening, leading individuals to delay their bedtime and shorten their sleep. A country’s average bedtime, but not average wake time, predicts sleep duration. We further show that mathematical models based on controlled laboratory experiments predict qualitative trends in sunrise, sunset, and light level; however, these effects are attenuated in the real world around bedtime. Additionally, we find that women schedule more sleep than men and that users reporting that they are typically exposed to outdoor light go to sleep earlier and sleep more than those reporting indoor light. Finally, we find that age is the primary determinant of sleep timing, and that age plays an important role in the variability of population-level sleep habits. This work better defines and personalizes “normal” sleep, produces hypotheses for future testing in the laboratory, and suggests important ways to counteract the global sleep crisis.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1440
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Aubé, M.; Kocifaj, M.
Title Editorial: Special issue on remote sensing of light pollution Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 181 Issue Pages 1
Keywords Commentary
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1441
Permanent link to this record