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Author Correa, A.; Barba, A.; Padilla, F.
Title Light Effects on Behavioural Performance Depend on the Individual State of Vigilance Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 11 Issue 11 Pages e0164945
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Research has shown that exposure to bright white light or blue-enriched light enhances alertness, but this effect is not consistently observed in tasks demanding high-level cognition (e.g., Sustained Attention to Response Task-SART, which measures inhibitory control). Individual differences in sensitivity to light effects might be mediated by variations in the basal level of arousal. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the participants' behavioural state of vigilance before light exposure, through the Psychomotor Vigilance Task. Then we compared the effects of a blue-enriched vs. dim light at nighttime on the performance of the auditory SART, by controlling for individual differences in basal arousal. The results replicated the alerting effects of blue-enriched light, as indexed by lower values of both proximal temperature and distal-proximal gradient. The main finding was that lighting effects on SART performance were highly variable across individuals and depended on their prior state of vigilance. Specifically, participants with higher levels of basal vigilance before light exposure benefited most from blue-enriched lighting, responding faster in the SART. These results highlight the importance of considering basal vigilance to define the boundary conditions of light effects on cognitive performance. Our study adds to current research delineating the complex and reciprocal interactions between lighting effects, arousal, cognitive task demands and behavioural performance.
Address Departamento de Psicologia Experimental. Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27820822 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1554
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Author Mendez, N.; Halabi, D.; Spichiger, C.; Salazar, E.R.; Vergara, K.; Alonso-Vasquez, P.; Carmona, P.; Sarmiento, J.M.; Richter, H.G.; Seron-Ferre, M.; Torres-Farfan, C.
Title Gestational Chronodisruption Impairs Circadian Physiology in Rat Male Offspring, Increasing the Risk of Chronic Disease Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Endocrinology
Volume 157 Issue 12 Pages 4654-4668
Keywords Animals
Abstract Chronic exposure to light at night, as in shift work, alters biological clocks (chronodisruption), impacting negatively pregnancy outcome in human. Actually, the interaction of maternal and fetal circadian systems could be a key factor determining a fitting health in adult. We propose that chronic photoperiod shifts (CPS) during pregnancy, alter maternal circadian rhythms, and impair circadian physiology in the adult offspring, increasing health risks. Pregnant rats were exposed to normal photoperiod (12h-light/12h-dark) or to CSP until 85 gestation. The effects of gestational CPS were evaluated on the mother and adult offspring. In the mother we measured rhythms of heart-rate, body temperature and activity through gestation, and daily rhythms of plasma variables: melatonin, corticosterone, aldosterone and markers of renal function; at 18 days of gestation. In adult offspring, we measured rhythms of clock gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), locomotor activity, body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma variables, glucose tolerance and corticosterone response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). CPS altered all maternal circadian rhythms; lengthened gestation and increased newborn weight. The adult CPS offspring presented normal rhythms of clock gene expression in the SCN, locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the daily rhythm of plasma melatonin was absent, and corticosterone, aldosterone, renal markers, blood pressure and heart-rate rhythms were altered. Moreover, CPS offspring presented decreased glucose tolerance and abnormal corticosterone response to ACTH. Altogether, these data shows that gestational CPS induced long-term effects on the offspring circadian system, wherein a normal SCN coexists with altered endocrine, cardiovascular and metabolic function.
Address Laboratory of Developmental Chronobiology, Institute of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology and
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0013-7227 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27802074 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1550
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Author Bolton, D.; Mayer-Pinto, M.; Clark, G.F.; Dafforn, K.A.; Brassil, W.A.; Becker, A.; Johnston, E.L.
Title Coastal urban lighting has ecological consequences for multiple trophic levels under the sea Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ
Volume 576 Issue Pages 1-9
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract Urban land and seascapes are increasingly exposed to artificial lighting at night (ALAN), which is a significant source of light pollution. A broad range of ecological effects are associated with ALAN, but the changes to ecological processes remain largely unstudied. Predation is a key ecological process that structures assemblages and responds to natural cycles of light and dark. We investigated the effect of ALAN on fish predatory behaviour, and sessile invertebrate prey assemblages. Over 21days fish and sessile assemblages were exposed to 3 light treatments (Day, Night and ALAN). An array of LED spotlights was installed under a wharf to create the ALAN treatments. We used GoPro cameras to film during the day and ALAN treatments, and a Dual frequency IDentification SONar (DIDSON) to film during the night treatments. Fish were most abundant during unlit nights, but were also relatively sedentary. Predatory behaviour was greatest during the day and under ALAN than at night, suggesting that fish are using structures for non-feeding purposes (e.g. shelter) at night, but artificial light dramatically increases their predatory behaviour. Altered predator behaviour corresponded with structural changes to sessile prey assemblages among the experimental lighting treatments. We demonstrate the direct effects of artificial lighting on fish behaviour and the concomitant indirect effects on sessile assemblage structure. Current and future projected use of artificial lights has the potential to significantly affect predator-prey interactions in marine systems by altering habitat use for both predators and prey. However, developments in lighting technology are a promising avenue for mitigation. This is among the first empirical evidence from the marine system on how ALAN can directly alter predation, a fundamental ecosystem process, and have indirect trophic consequences.
Address Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Sydney Institute of Marine Sciences, Mosman, NSW 2088, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27780095 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1548
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Author Jan Stenvers, D.; van Dorp, R.; Foppen, E.; Mendoza, J.; Opperhuizen, A.-L.; Fliers, E.; Bisschop, P.H.; Meijer, J.H.; Kalsbeek, A.; Deboer, T.
Title Dim light at night disturbs the daily sleep-wake cycle in the rat Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 6 Issue Pages 35662
Keywords Animals
Abstract Exposure to light at night (LAN) is associated with insomnia in humans. Light provides the main input to the master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that coordinates the sleep-wake cycle. We aimed to develop a rodent model for the effects of LAN on sleep. Therefore, we exposed male Wistar rats to either a 12 h light (150-200lux):12 h dark (LD) schedule or a 12 h light (150-200 lux):12 h dim white light (5 lux) (LDim) schedule. LDim acutely decreased the amplitude of daily rhythms of REM and NREM sleep, with a further decrease over the following days. LDim diminished the rhythms of 1) the circadian 16-19 Hz frequency domain within the NREM sleep EEG, and 2) SCN clock gene expression. LDim also induced internal desynchronization in locomotor activity by introducing a free running rhythm with a period of ~25 h next to the entrained 24 h rhythm. LDim did not affect body weight or glucose tolerance. In conclusion, we introduce the first rodent model for disturbed circadian control of sleep due to LAN. We show that internal desynchronization is possible in a 24 h L:D cycle which suggests that a similar desynchronization may explain the association between LAN and human insomnia.
Address Laboratory for Neurophysiology, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27762290 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1547
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Author Flores, D.E.F.L.; Jannetti, M.G.; Valentinuzzi, V.S.; Oda, G.A.
Title Entrainment of circadian rhythms to irregular light/dark cycles: a subterranean perspective Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 6 Issue Pages 34264
Keywords Animals
Abstract Synchronization of biological rhythms to the 24-hour day/night has long been studied with model organisms, under artificial light/dark cycles in the laboratory. The commonly used rectangular light/dark cycles, comprising hours of continuous light and darkness, may not be representative of the natural light exposure for most species, including humans. Subterranean rodents live in dark underground tunnels and offer a unique opportunity to investigate extreme mechanisms of photic entrainment in the wild. Here, we show automated field recordings of the daily light exposure patterns in a South American subterranean rodent, the tuco-tuco (Ctenomys aff. knighti ). In the laboratory, we exposed tuco-tucos to a simplified version of this natural light exposure pattern, to determine the minimum light timing information that is necessary for synchronization. As predicted from our previous studies using mathematical modeling, the activity rhythm of tuco-tucos synchronized to this mostly simplified light/dark regimen consisting of a single light pulse per day, occurring at randomly scattered times within a day length interval. Our integrated semi-natural, lab and computer simulation findings indicate that photic entrainment of circadian oscillators is robust, even in face of artificially reduced exposure and increased phase instability of the synchronizing stimuli.
Address Institute of Biosciences, Department of Physiology, University of Sao Paulo; Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 05508-900; Brazil
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27698436 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1539
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