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Author Raap, T.; Casasole, G.; Pinxten, R.; Eens, M.
Title Early life exposure to artificial light at night affects the physiological condition: An experimental study on the ecophysiology of free-living nestling songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) Abbreviated Journal Environ Pollut
Volume 218 Issue Pages 909-914
Keywords Animals
Abstract Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is increasingly recognised to be an important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife, affecting animal behaviour and physiology. Early life experiences are extremely important for the development, physiological status and health of organisms, and as such, early exposure to artificial light may have detrimental consequences for organism fitness. We experimentally manipulated the light environment of free-living great tit nestlings (Parus major), an important model species in evolutionary and environmental research. Haptoglobin (Hp) and nitric oxide (NOx), as important indicators of immunity, health, and physiological condition, were quantified in nestlings at baseline (13 days after hatching) and after a two night exposure to ALAN. We found that ALAN increased Hp and decreased NOx. ALAN may increase stress and oxidative stress and reduce melatonin which could subsequently lead to increased Hp and decreased NOx. Haptoglobin is part of the immune response and mounting an immune response is costly in energy and resources and, trade-offs are likely to occur with other energetically demanding tasks, such as survival or reproduction. Acute inhibition of NOx may have a cascading effect as it also affects other physiological aspects and may negatively affect immunocompetence. The consequences of the observed effects on Hp and NOx remain to be examined. Our study provides experimental field evidence that ALAN affects nestlings' physiology during development and early life exposure to ALAN could therefore have long lasting effects throughout adulthood.
Address Department of Biology, Behavioural Ecology and Ecophysiology Group, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27531621 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1514
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Author Portnov, B.A.; Stevens, R.G.; Samociuk, H.; Wakefield, D.; Gregorio, D.I.
Title Light at night and breast cancer incidence in Connecticut: An ecological study of age group effects Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ
Volume 572 Issue Pages 1020-1024
Keywords Human Health
Abstract The aim of this study was to test the prediction that within the state of Connecticut, USA, communities with high nighttime outdoor light level would have higher breast cancer incidence rates. Breast cancer cases were identified from the Connecticut Tumor Registry, the oldest within the United States, for years 2005 and 2009 and geocoded to the 829 census tracts in the state. Nighttime light level (LAN) was obtained from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), 1996/97 satellite image, providing a 10-year lag. Regression models were used incorporating the LAN levels and census level data on potential confounders for the whole female population of the state, and for separate age groups. Light level emerged as a significant predictor of breast cancer incidence. After taking account of several potential confounders, the excess risk in the highest LAN level census tracts compared to the lowest was about 63% (RR=1.63; 95% CI=1.41, 1.89). The association of LAN with breast cancer incidence weakened with age; the association was strongest among premenopausal women.
Address Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Connecticut, Farmington, CT 06030, United States. Electronic address: gregorio@uchc.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27531467 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1529
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Author DuBose, J.R.; Hadi, K.
Title Improving inpatient environments to support patient sleep Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication International Journal for Quality in Health Care : Journal of the International Society for Quality in Health Care / ISQua Abbreviated Journal Int J Qual Health Care
Volume 28 Issue 5 Pages 540-553
Keywords Human Health
Abstract PURPOSE: Although sleep is important for healing, sleep deprivation is a major concern for patients in hospitals. The purpose of this review is to consolidate the observational and interventional studies that have been done to understand exogenous, non-pharmacological strategies for improving sleep in hospitals. DATA SOURCES: We searched Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Web of Science databases for peer-reviewed articles published between 1970 and 2015 in English. STUDY SELECTION: A title review of 13,113 articles from four databases resulted in 783 articles that were further culled to 277 based on a review of the abstracts. The net result after reading the articles and a hand search was 42 articles. DATA EXTRACTION: From each article we recorded the independent variables, methods used for measuring sleep and specific sleep outcomes reported. RESULTS OF DATA SYNTHESIS: Noise is a modifiable cause of some sleep disruptions in hospitals, and when reduced can lead to more sleep. Earplugs and eye masks may help, but changing the sound and light environment is more effective. Calming music in the evening has been shown to be effective as well as daytime bright light exposure. Nursing care activities cause sleep disruption, but efforts at limiting interventions have not been demonstrated to improve sleep conditions. CONCLUSION: The research is hard to consolidate due to the multitude of independent variables and outcome metrics, but overall points to the potential for making meaningful improvements in the quality of patient sleep.
Address College of Design, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30308, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1353-4505 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27512130 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1505
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Author Morag, I.; Ohlsson, A.
Title Cycled light in the intensive care unit for preterm and low birth weight infants Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Volume 8 Issue Pages Cd006982
Keywords Human Health
Abstract BACKGROUND: Potential benefits and harms of different lighting in neonatal units have not been quantified. OBJECTIVES: * To determine effectiveness and safety of cycled light (CL) (approximately 12 hours of light on and 12 hours of light off) for growth in preterm infants at three and six months' corrected age (CA).* In separate analyses, to compare effects of CL with those of irregularly dimmed light (DL) or near darkness (ND), and effects of CL with those of continuous bright light (CBL), on growth in preterm infants at three and six months' CA.* To assess, in subgroup analyses, the effectiveness and safety of CL (vs control interventions (DL, ND and CBL)) introduced at different postmenstrual ages (PMAs) – before 32 weeks', at 32 weeks' and from 36 weeks' PMA – and to compare effectiveness and safety of CL for small for gestational age (GA) infants versus appropriately grown infants. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 12), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to January 2016), Embase (1980 to January 2016) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to January 2016). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of CL versus ND or CBL in preterm and low birth weight infants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed data collection and analyses according to the methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We identified one additional study enrolling 38 participants for inclusion in this update, for a total of nine studies reporting on 544 infants. In general, the quality of the studies was low, mainly owing to lack of blinding and small sample sizes.Six studies enrolling 424 infants compared CL versus ND. No study reported on weight at three or six months. One study (n = 40) found no statistically significant difference in weight at four months between CL and ND groups. In another study (n = 62), the ratio of day-night activity before discharge favoured the CL group (mean difference (MD) 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17 to 0.19), indicating 18% more activity during the day than during the night in the CL group compared with the ND group. Two studies (n = 189) reported on retinopathy of prematurity (stage >/= 3) and reported no statistically significant differences between CL and ND groups (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.53, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.11, I2 = 0%; typical risk difference (RD) -0.09, 95% CI -0.19 to 0.01, I2 = 0%). Two studies (n = 77) reported length of hospital stay (days) and noted a significant reduction in length of stay between CL and ND groups favouring the CL group (weighted mean difference (WMD) -13 days, 95% CI -23 to -2, I2 = 0%; no heterogeneity). The quality of the evidence according to GRADE was low for this outcome. One study (n = 37) reported less crying at 11 weeks' corrected age (CA) in the CL group compared with the ND group (MD -0.57 hours/24 h, 95% CI -1.09 to -0.05). Tests for heterogeneity were not applicable.Three studies enrolling 120 infants compared CL versus CBL. Two studies (n = 79) reported significantly shorter length of stay in the CL group compared with the CBL group (WMD -16.5 days, 95% CI -26.2 to -6.8, I2 = 0%; no heterogeneity). The quality of the evidence according to GRADE was low for this outcome. One study (n = 41) reported higher mean weight at three months' CA among infants cared for in the CL nursery (P value < 0.02) and a lower mean number of hours spent awake in 24 hours at three months of age (P value < 0.005). Data could not be entered into RevMan or GRADE. One study (n = 41) reported shorter time on the ventilator in the CL compared with the CBL group (MD -18.2 days, 95% CI -31.40 to -5.0). One study (n = 41) reported a shorter time to first oral feeding in the CL group (MD -6.8 days, 95% CI -13.29 to -0.31). We identified no safety issues. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Trials assessing the effects of CL have enrolled 544 infants. No study reported on our primary outcome of weight at three or six months. Results from one additional study strengthen our findings that CL versus CBL shortens length of stay, as does CL versus ND. The quality of the evidence on both comparisons for this outcome according to GRADE was low. Future research should focus on comparing CL versus ND.
Address The Edmond & Lily Safra Children's Hospital Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1361-6137 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27508358 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1506
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Author Versteeg, R.I.; Stenvers, D.J.; Kalsbeek, A.; Bisschop, P.H.; Serlie, M.J.; la Fleur, S.E.
Title Nutrition in the spotlight: metabolic effects of environmental light Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Nutr Soc
Volume 75 Issue 4 Pages 451-463
Keywords Animals; Human Health
Abstract Use of artificial light resulted in relative independence from the natural light-dark (LD) cycle, allowing human subjects to shift the timing of food intake and work to convenient times. However, the increase in artificial light exposure parallels the increase in obesity prevalence. Light is the dominant Zeitgeber for the central circadian clock, which resides within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, and coordinates daily rhythm in feeding behaviour and metabolism. Eating during inappropriate light conditions may result in metabolic disease via changes in the biological clock. In this review, we describe the physiological role of light in the circadian timing system and explore the interaction between the circadian timing system and metabolism. Furthermore, we discuss the acute and chronic effects of artificial light exposure on food intake and energy metabolism in animals and human subjects. We propose that living in synchrony with the natural daily LD cycle promotes metabolic health and increased exposure to artificial light at inappropriate times of day has adverse effects on metabolism, feeding behaviour and body weight regulation. Reducing the negative side effects of the extensive use of artificial light in human subjects might be useful in the prevention of metabolic disease.
Address Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism,Academic Medical Center,University of Amsterdam,Meibergdreef 9,F2-154, 1105 AZ Amsterdam-Zuidoost,The Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0029-6651 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27499509 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1504
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