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Author de Jong, M.; Ouyang, J.Q.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Visser, M.E.; Spoelstra, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Do Wild Great Tits Avoid Exposure to Light at Night? Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 11 Issue 6 Pages e0157357  
  Keywords birds; animals; behaviour  
  Abstract Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their nighttime light exposure by seeking dark spots within illuminated areas. This uncertainty makes it difficult to attribute effects to a direct effect of light at night, or to indirect effects, e.g., via an effect of light at night on food availability. In this study, we aim to quantify the nocturnal light exposure of wild birds in a previously dark forest-edge habitat, experimentally illuminated with three different colors of street lighting, in comparison to a dark control. During two consecutive breeding seasons, we deployed male great tits (Parus major) with a light logger measuring light intensity every five minutes over a 24h period. We found that three males from pairs breeding in brightly illuminated nest boxes close to green and red lamp posts, were not exposed to more artificial light at night than males from pairs breeding further away. This suggests, based on our limited sample size, that these males could have been avoiding light at night by choosing a roosting place with a reduced light intensity. Therefore, effects of light at night previously reported for this species in our experimental set-up might be indirect. In contrast to urban areas where light is omnipresent, bird species in non-urban areas may evade exposure to nocturnal artificial light, thereby avoiding direct consequences of light at night.  
  Address Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, The Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27355354; PMCID:PMC4927185 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1664  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Esaki, Y.; Kitajima, T.; Ito, Y.; Koike, S.; Nakao, Y.; Tsuchiya, A.; Hirose, M.; Iwata, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Wearing blue light-blocking glasses in the evening advances circadian rhythms in the patients with delayed sleep phase disorder: An open-label trial Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume 33 Issue 8 Pages 1037-1044  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract It has been recently discovered that blue wavelengths form the portion of the visible electromagnetic spectrum that most potently regulates circadian rhythm. We investigated the effect of blue light-blocking glasses in subjects with delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). This open-label trial was conducted over 4 consecutive weeks. The DSPD patients were instructed to wear blue light-blocking amber glasses from 21:00 p.m. to bedtime, every evening for 2 weeks. To ascertain the outcome of this intervention, we measured dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) and actigraphic sleep data at baseline and after the treatment. Nine consecutive DSPD patients participated in this study. Most subjects could complete the treatment with the exception of one patient who hoped for changing to drug therapy before the treatment was completed. The patients who used amber lens showed an advance of 78 min in DLMO value, although the change was not statistically significant (p = 0.145). Nevertheless, the sleep onset time measured by actigraph was advanced by 132 min after the treatment (p = 0.034). These data suggest that wearing amber lenses may be an effective and safe intervention for the patients with DSPD. These findings also warrant replication in a larger patient cohort with controlled observations.  
  Address a Department of Psychiatry , Fujita Health University School of Medicine , Aichi , Japan  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27322730 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1488  
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Author Pilorz, V.; Tam, S.K.E.; Hughes, S.; Pothecary, C.A.; Jagannath, A.; Hankins, M.W.; Bannerman, D.M.; Lightman, S.L.; Vyazovskiy, V.V.; Nolan, P.M.; Foster, R.G.; Peirson, S.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Melanopsin Regulates Both Sleep-Promoting and Arousal-Promoting Responses to Light Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PLoS Biology Abbreviated Journal PLoS Biol  
  Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages e1002482  
  Keywords Human health; melanopsin; sleep; circadian rhythm  
  Abstract Light plays a critical role in the regulation of numerous aspects of physiology and behaviour, including the entrainment of circadian rhythms and the regulation of sleep. These responses involve melanopsin (OPN4)-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) in addition to rods and cones. Nocturnal light exposure in rodents has been shown to result in rapid sleep induction, in which melanopsin plays a key role. However, studies have also shown that light exposure can result in elevated corticosterone, a response that is not compatible with sleep. To investigate these contradictory findings and to dissect the relative contribution of pRGCs and rods/cones, we assessed the effects of light of different wavelengths on behaviourally defined sleep. Here, we show that blue light (470 nm) causes behavioural arousal, elevating corticosterone and delaying sleep onset. By contrast, green light (530 nm) produces rapid sleep induction. Compared to wildtype mice, these responses are altered in melanopsin-deficient mice (Opn4-/-), resulting in enhanced sleep in response to blue light but delayed sleep induction in response to green or white light. We go on to show that blue light evokes higher Fos induction in the SCN compared to the sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), whereas green light produced greater responses in the VLPO. Collectively, our data demonstrates that nocturnal light exposure can have either an arousal- or sleep-promoting effect, and that these responses are melanopsin-mediated via different neural pathways with different spectral sensitivities. These findings raise important questions relating to how artificial light may alter behaviour in both the work and domestic setting.  
  Address Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute (SCNi), Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford Molecular Pathology Institute, Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; stuart.peirson(at)eye.ox.ac.uk (SNP); russell.foster(at)eye.ox.ac.uk (RGF).  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher PLOS Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1544-9173 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27276063; PMCID:PMC4898879 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1490  
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Author Spitschan, M.; Aguirre, G.K.; Brainard, D.H.; Sweeney, A.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Variation of outdoor illumination as a function of solar elevation and light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages 26756  
  Keywords Skyglow; Measurements; light pollution; daylight; twilight; sky brightness; spectral irradiance; CIE  
  Abstract The illumination of the environment undergoes both intensity and spectral changes during the 24 h cycle of a day. Daylight spectral power distributions are well described by low-dimensional models such as the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) daylight model, but the performance of this model in non-daylight regimes is not characterised. We measured downwelling spectral irradiance across multiple days in two locations in North America: One rural location (Cherry Springs State Park, PA) with minimal anthropogenic light sources, and one city location (Philadelphia, PA). We characterise the spectral, intensity and colour changes and extend the existing CIE model for daylight to capture twilight components and the spectrum of the night sky.  
  Address Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Nature Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27272736 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1464  
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Author Aulsebrook, A.E.; Jones, T.M.; Rattenborg, N.C.; Roth, T.C. 2nd; Lesku, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sleep Ecophysiology: Integrating Neuroscience and Ecology Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Trends in Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Trends Ecol Evol  
  Volume 31 Issue 8 Pages 590-599  
  Keywords Commentary; Physiology  
  Abstract Here, we propose an original approach to explain one of the great unresolved questions in animal biology: what is the function of sleep? Existing ecological and neurological approaches to this question have become roadblocks to an answer. Ecologists typically treat sleep as a simple behavior, instead of a heterogeneous neurophysiological state, while neuroscientists generally fail to appreciate the critical insights offered by the consideration of ecology and evolutionary history. Redressing these shortfalls requires cross-disciplinary integration. By bringing together aspects of behavioral ecology, evolution, and conservation with neurophysiology, we can achieve a more comprehensive understanding of sleep, including its implications for adaptive waking behavior and fitness.  
  Address La Trobe University, School of Life Sciences, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address: j.lesku@latrobe.edu.au  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0169-5347 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27262386 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1462  
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