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Author Ciriminna, R.; Meneguzzo, F.; Albanese, L.; Pagliaro, M.
Title Solar street lighting: a key technology en route to sustainability: Solar street lighting technology for sustainability Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment Abbreviated Journal WIREs Energy Environ
Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages in press
Keywords Lighting, Energy
Abstract Today’s solar street LED lights are able to provide reliable, quality lighting both in developing and developed countries, thereby reducing light poverty and the economic and environmental costs of electric outdoor lighting. Rapid technical innovation and dramatic price reduction in the LED, PV module, and battery components, which has occurred in the last 5 years, will accelerate the penetration of solar street LED lights across the world. Applications will not be limited to countries with significant insolation only but will extend to Northern regions as well. This study provides a critical overview of a technology that will play an important role en route to global sustainability.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2041-8396 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1487
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Author Lewanzik, D.; Voigt, C.C.; Minderman, J.
Title Transition from conventional to light-emitting diode street lighting changes activity of urban bats Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 264-271
Keywords Animals; Bats
Abstract Light pollution is rapidly increasing and can have deleterious effects on biodiversity, yet light types differ in their effect on wildlife. Among the light types used for street lamps, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are expected to become globally predominant within the next few years.

In a large-scale field experiment, we recorded bat activity at 46 street lights for 12 nights each and investigated how the widespread replacement of conventional illuminants by LEDs affects urban bats: we compared bat activity at municipal mercury vapour (MV) street lamps that were replaced by LEDs with control sites that were not changed.

Pipistrellus pipistrellus was the most frequently recorded species; it was 45% less active at LEDs than at MV street lamps, but the activity did not depend on illuminance level. Light type did not affect the activity of Pipistrellus nathusii, Pipistrellus pygmaeus or bats in the Nyctalus/Eptesicus/Vespertilio (NEV) group, yet the activity of P. nathusii increased with illuminance level. Bats of the genus Myotis increased activity 4·5-fold at LEDs compared with MV lights, but illuminance level had no effect.

Decreased activity of P. pipistrellus, which are considered light tolerant, probably paralleled insect densities around lights. Further, our results suggest that LEDs may be less repelling for light-averse Myotis spp. than MV lights. Accordingly, the transition from conventional lighting techniques to LEDs may greatly alter the anthropogenic impact of artificial light on urban bats and might eventually affect the resilience of urban bat populations.

Synthesis and applications. At light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the competitive advantage – the exclusive ability to forage on insect aggregations at lights – is reduced for light-tolerant bats. Thus, the global spread of LED street lamps might lead to a more natural level of competition between light-tolerant and light-averse bats. This effect could be reinforced if the potential advantages of LEDs over conventional illuminants are applied in practice: choice of spectra with relatively little energy in the short wavelength range; reduced spillover by precisely directing light; dimming during low human activity times; and control by motion sensors. Yet, the potential benefits of LEDs could be negated if low costs foster an overall increase in artificial lighting.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1518
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Author Gao, X.; Li, X.; Zhang, M.; Chi, L.; Song, C.; Liu, Y.
Title Effects of LED light quality on the growth, survival and metamorphosis ofHaliotis discus hannaiIno larvae Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Aquaculture Research Abbreviated Journal Aquac Res
Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 3705–3717
Keywords Animals; Haliotis discus hannai Ino; larva; LED light quality; initial stage of lighting; embryonic development; abalone; photobiology
Abstract Light is a key environmental factor influencing the growth, development and survival of aquatic organisms. We examined the effects of different light qualities (red, orange, white, blue, green or no light) and developmental stage at initial lighting [fertilized egg (FE), trochophore larva (TL), or eye-spot larva (EL)] on the growth, development, and survival of larvae of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Larva-hatching success was significantly higher under blue, green, or no light compared with red, orange or white light (P < 0.05). Larval abnormalities were significantly increased under red, orange or white light compared with all other light qualities (P < 0.05). The incidence of metamorphosis in larvae illuminated from the TL stage was significantly higher under blue compared with other light qualities. Irrespective of the stage at initial illumination, the incidence of metamorphosis was lower in larvae cultured under red, orange or no light compared with other light qualities, but the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Juvenile survival was significantly higher under blue or green compared with other light qualities (P < 0.05), with no significant effect of stage at initial illumination (P > 0.05). Larval size at completion of the shell was unaffected by stage at initial illumination, but was greater under blue or green light, while size at metamorphosis was greatest following illumination with blue or green light since the TL or EL stage (P < 0.05). Metamorphosis time was shortest with blue or green light and in cultures illuminated from the FE or TL stage (P < 0.05). Larval development from the FE to formation of the fourth tubule on the cephalic tentacles was fastest in larvae exposed since the FE or TL stage to blue or green light, compared with other light qualities (P < 0.05). However, there was no difference in terms of the rate of development from the FE to the TL stage between cultures lit or unlit since the FE egg stage (P > 0.05). These results suggest that a blue or green light source applied from the TL stage can increase the hatching and yield of H. discus hannai Ino, with important implications for the development of the aquaculture industry.
Address Research and Development Center of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Science, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071, Shandong Province, China; 18354292961(at)163.com.
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1355557X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1340
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Author Traill, L.W.; Martin, J.; Owen-Smith, N.
Title Lion proximity, not moon phase, affects the nocturnal movement behaviour of zebra and wildebeest Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal J Zool
Volume 299 Issue 3 Pages 221-227
Keywords Animals; Moonlight
Abstract Moon phase affects nocturnal activity patterns in mammals. Among ungulates, a number of studies have found animals to be more active over full moon nights. This may be because increased luminosity provides increased opportunity to forage and/or increased ability to detect predators; known as the visual acuity hypothesis. Here, we use GPS-derived movement data to test for the influence of moon phase on plains zebra Equus quagga and blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus activity in Kruger National Park, South Africa. We compare animal movement (rate and displacement) over full and new moon nights, and consider the effect of lion proximity. We found that lion proximity largely determined the nocturnal movements of zebra and wildebeest, not moon phase. When lions were >1 km away, there was no difference in the nocturnal movement activity of prey animals over full and new moon conditions, contradicting previous findings. When lions were within 1 km of these animals, however, the movement of zebra and wildebeest greatly increased over the new moon, the relatively dark period when lion were most likely hunting. Although we could not explicitly test for predator detection here, our findings suggest that the visual acuity hypothesis does not hold for zebra and wildebeest in Kruger National Park (KNP) given that there is no evidence for increased foraging activity over the full moon. The influence of moon phase on the nocturnal activity of African ungulates may be more complicated than anticipated, and we suggest that this cannot be estimated unless predator proximity is accounted for.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0952-8369 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1558
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Author Polivka, T.N.; Wang, J.; Ellison, L.T.; Hyer, E.J.; Ichoku, C.M.
Title Improving Nocturnal Fire Detection With the VIIRS Day-Night Band Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing
Volume 54 Issue 9 Pages 5503-5519
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Building on existing techniques for satellite remote sensing of fires, this paper takes advantage of the day-night band (DNB) aboard the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to develop the Firelight Detection Algorithm (FILDA), which characterizes fire pixels based on both visible-light and infrared (IR) signatures at night. By adjusting fire pixel selection criteria to include visible-light signatures, FILDA allows for significantly improved detection of pixels with smaller and/or cooler subpixel hotspots than the operational Interface Data Processing System (IDPS) algorithm. VIIRS scenes with near-coincident Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) overpasses are examined after applying the operational VIIRS fire product algorithm and including a modified “candidate fire pixel selection” approach from FILDA that lowers the 4-&#956;m brightness temperature (BT) threshold but includes a minimum DNB radiance. FILDA is shown to be effective in detecting gas flares and characterizing fire lines during large forest fires (such as the Rim Fire in California and High Park fire in Colorado). Compared with the operational VIIRS fire algorithm for the study period, FILDA shows a large increase (up to 90%) in the number of detected fire pixels that can be verified with the finer resolution ASTER data (90 m). Part (30%) of this increase is likely due to a combined use of DNB and lower 4-&#956;m BT thresholds for fire detection in FILDA. Although further studies are needed, quantitative use of the DNB to improve fire detection could lead to reduced response times to wildfires and better estimate of fire characteristics (smoldering and flaming) at night.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0196-2892 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1781
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