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Author Hölker, Andreas; Doulos, Lambros; Schroer, Sibylle; Topalis, Frangiskos url  openurl
  Title Sustainable outdoor lighting for reducing energy and light waste Type Conference Article
  Year 2016 Publication 9th International Conference Improving Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings and Smart Communities Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 202-213  
  Keywords lighting design; lighting technology; light pollution  
  Abstract The lack of lighting planning for internal and external illumination of buildings contributes to wasting energy and to the issue of light pollution. This will be demonstrated with research from the ground and by analysis of images, taken with detectors on satellites, the International Space Station or planes. Besides large area floodlighting from airports or sports facilities, facade illumination is the most important contributor. The effects of malpractice versus sustainable lighting planning solutions will be demonstrated with some examples in cities like Bonn, Strasbourg, Athens and Thessaloniki. Further examples in the countryside will demonstrate lighting practice in the German star park Biosphere Reserve Rhön. Facade lighting planning, considering optimal alignment, the intensity and the colour quality of the illumination, will contribute to reducing light pollution and thus waste of energy and will increase human comfort at the same time.

Experience shows that unilateral promoting energy efficiency will finally result in more extended use of energy, which is known as rebound effect. In addition the small size and long lifetime of the modern solid state lighting will result in an increased use even in remote places thereby emitting more artificial light into the natural night. This does not only affect the energy use, but also the biological rhythms of animals and human beings.

More interdisciplinary criteria for a sustainable lighting with reduced light pollution will be discussed based on the observations including data provided by the EU-network “Loss of the Night”-Network (EU-COST Action ES1204 LoNNe).
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher JRC Confernce and workshop reports Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1573  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rodríguez Martín, A.; Chiaradia, A.; Wasiak, P.; Renwick, L.; Dann, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Waddling on the Dark Side: Ambient Light Affects Attendance Behavior of Little Penguins Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms  
  Volume 0748730415626010 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals; birds; penguins; attendance; little penguin; Eudyptula minor; Phillip Island; Australia; photobiology; seabirds  
  Abstract Visible light on Earth largely comes from the sun, including light reflected from the moon. Predation risk is strongly determined by light conditions, and some animals are nocturnal to reduce predation. Artificial lights and its consequent light pollution may disrupt this natural behavior. Here, we used 13 years of attendance data to study the effects of sun, moon, and artificial light on the attendance pattern of a nocturnal seabird, the little penguin Eudyptula minor at Phillip Island, Australia. The little penguin is the smallest and the only penguin species whose activity on land is strictly nocturnal. Automated monitoring systems recorded individually marked penguins every time they arrived (after sunset) at or departed (before sunrise) from 2 colonies under different lighting conditions: natural night skylight and artificial lights (around 3 lux) used to enhance penguin viewing for ecotourism around sunset. Sunlight had a strong effect on attendance as penguins arrived on average around 81 min after sunset and departed around 92 min before sunrise. The effect of moonlight was also strong, varying according to moon phase. Fewer penguins came ashore during full moon nights. Moon phase effect was stronger on departure than arrival times. Thus, during nights between full moon and last quarter, arrival times (after sunset) were delayed, even though moonlight levels were low, while departure times (before sunrise) were earlier, coinciding with high moonlight levels. Cyclic patterns of moon effect were slightly out of phase but significantly between 2 colonies, which could be due to site-specific differences or presence/absence of artificial lights. Moonlight could be overridden by artificial light at our artificially lit colony, but the similar amplitude of attendance patterns between colonies suggests that artificial light did not mask the moonlight effect. Further research is indeed necessary to understand how seabirds respond to the increasing artificial night light levels.  
  Address Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Estación Biológica de Doñana, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Avda. Américo Vespucio s/n, 41092 Seville, Spain; airamrguez(at)ebd.csic.es  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1345  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Travis, R.C.; Balkwill, A.; Fensom, G.K.; Appleby, P.N.; Reeves, G.K.; Wang, X.-S.; Roddam, A.W.; Gathani, T.; Peto, R.; Green, J.; Key, T.J.; Beral, V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night Shift Work and Breast Cancer Incidence: Three Prospective Studies and Meta-analysis of Published Studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of the National Cancer Institute Abbreviated Journal JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst  
  Volume 108 Issue 12 Pages djw169  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Background: It has been proposed that night shift work could increase breast cancer incidence. A 2007 World Health Organization review concluded, mainly from animal evidence, that shift work involving circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans. We therefore aimed to generate prospective epidemiological evidence on night shift work and breast cancer incidence.

Methods: Overall, 522 246 Million Women Study, 22 559 EPIC-Oxford, and 251 045 UK Biobank participants answered questions on shift work and were followed for incident cancer. Cox regression yielded multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for night shift work vs no night shift work, and likelihood ratio tests for interaction were used to assess heterogeneity. Our meta-analyses combined these and relative risks from the seven previously published prospective studies (1.4 million women in total), using inverse-variance weighted averages of the study-specific log RRs.

Results: In the Million Women Study, EPIC-Oxford, and UK Biobank, respectively, 673, 28, and 67 women who reported night shift work developed breast cancer, and the RRs for any vs no night shift work were 1.00 (95% CI = 0.92 to 1.08), 1.07 (95% CI = 0.71 to 1.62), and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.61 to 1.00). In the Million Women Study, the RR for 20 or more years of night shift work was 1.00 (95% CI = 0.81 to 1.23), with no statistically significant heterogeneity by sleep patterns or breast cancer risk factors. Our meta-analysis of all 10 prospective studies included 4660 breast cancers in women reporting night shift work; compared with other women, the combined relative risks were 0.99 (95% CI = 0.95 to 1.03) for any night shift work, 1.01 (95% CI = 0.93 to 1.10) for 20 or more years of night shift work, and 1.00 (95% CI = 0.87 to 1.14) for 30 or more years.

Conclusions: The totality of the prospective evidence shows that night shift work, including long-term shift work, has little or no effect on breast cancer incidence.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8874 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1540  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gómez, C.; Mitchell, C.A. url  openurl
  Title Physiological and Productivity Responses of High-wire Tomato as Affected by Supplemental Light Source and Distribution within the Canopy Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science Abbreviated Journal J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.  
  Volume 141 Issue 2 Pages 196-208  
  Keywords Plants; tomato; LED; LED lighting; Solanum lycopersicum; intracanopy lighting; greenhouses; intracanopy supplemental lighting; daily light integral  
  Abstract The relative coolness-to-touch of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has enabled commercial implementation of intracanopy lighting (ICL) in the greenhouse. Intracanopy lighting, which refers to the strategy of lighting along the side or from within the foliar canopy, can increase canopy photosynthetic activity, but physiological and productivity responses of high-wire greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to intracanopy supplemental lighting (SL) still are not yet fully understood. Two consecutive production experiments were conducted across seasons in a glass-glazed greenhouse located in a midnorthern, continental climate [lat. 40°N (West Lafayette, IN)]. Plants were grown from winter-to-summer [increasing solar daily light integral (DLI)] and from summer-to-winter (decreasing solar DLI) to compare three SL strategies for high-wire tomato production across changing solar DLIs: top lighting with high-pressure sodium lamps (HPS) vs. intracanopy LED vertical towers vs. hybrid SL (HPS + horizontal ICL-LEDs). A control treatment also was included for which no SL was provided. Supplemental DLI for each experimental period was adjusted monthly, to complement seasonal changes in sunlight, aiming to approach a target total DLI of 25 mol·m‒2·d‒1 during fruit set. Harvest parameters (total fruit fresh weight, number of fruit harvested, and average cluster fresh weight), tissue temperature, chlorophyll fluorescence, and stomatal conductance (gS) were unaffected by SL treatment in both experiments. Among the physiological parameters evaluated, CO2 assimilation measured under light-saturating conditions, light-limited quantum-use efficiency, and maximum gross CO2 assimilation (Amax) proved to be good indicators of how ICL reduces the top-to-bottom decline in leaf photosynthetic activity otherwise measured with top lighting only (HPS-SL or solar). Although SL generally increased fruit yield relative to control, lack of SL treatment differences among harvest parameters indicates that higher crop photosynthetic activity did not increase fruit yield. Compared with control, intracanopy SL increased yield to the same extent as top SL, but the remaining photoassimilate from ICL most likely was partitioned to maintain nonharvested, vegetative plant parts as well.  
  Address Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, 625 Agriculture Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2010  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher American Society for Horticultural Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Engligh Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-1062 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1431  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Weidmann, N.; Schutte, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Using night light emissions for the prediction of local wealth Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Peace Research Abbreviated Journal J Peace Res  
  Volume Issue Pages 0022343316630359  
  Keywords Economics; remote sensing; night lights; spatial prediction  
  Abstract Nighttime illumination can serve as a proxy for economic variables in particular in developing countries, where data are often not available or of poor quality. Existing research has demonstrated this for coarse levels of analytical resolution, such as countries, administrative units or large grid cells. In this article, we conduct the first fine-grained analysis of night lights and wealth in developing countries. The use of large-scale, geo-referenced data from the Demographic and Health Surveys allows us to cover 39 less developed, mostly non-democratic countries with a total sample of more than 34,000 observations at the level of villages or neighborhoods. We show that light emissions are highly accurate predictors of economic wealth estimates even with simple statistical models, both when predicting new locations in a known country and when generating predictions for previously unobserved countries.  
  Address Department of Politics and Public Administration, University of Konstanz, Germany; nils.weidmann(at)uni-konstanz.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1474  
Permanent link to this record
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