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Author Xie, Y.; Weng, Q. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Detecting urban-scale dynamics of electricity consumption at Chinese cities using time-series DMSP-OLS (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System) nighttime light imageries Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Energy Abbreviated Journal Energy  
  Volume (down) 100 Issue Pages 177-189  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract A better understanding of the spatiotemporal pattern of energy consumption at the urban scale is significant in the interactions between economic activities and environment. This study assessed the spatiotemporal dynamics of EC (electricity consumption) in UC (urban cores) and SR (suburban regions) in China from 2000 to 2012 by using remotely sensed NTL (nighttime light) imagery. Firstly, UC and SR were extracted using a threshold technique. Next, provincial level model was calibrated yearly by using Enhanced Vegetation Index and population-adjusted NTL data as independent variables. These models were then applied for pixel-based estimation to obtain time-series EC data sets. Finally, the spatiotemporal pattern of EC in both UC and SR were explored. The results indicated that the proportion of EC in urban areas rose from 50.6% to 71.32%, with a growing trend of spatial autocorrelation. Cities with high urban EC were either located in the coastal region or belonged to provincial capitals. These cities experienced a moderate to a rapid growth of EC in both UC and SR, while a slow growth was detected for the majority of western and northeastern cities. The findings suggested that EC in SR was more crucial for sustainable energy development in China.  
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  ISSN 0360-5442 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2489  
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Author Fallows, C.; Fallows, M.; Hammerschlag, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of lunar phase on predator-prey interactions between white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) and Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Environmental Biology of Fishes Abbreviated Journal Environ Biol Fish  
  Volume (down) 99 Issue 11 Pages 805-812  
  Keywords Moonlight; Animals  
  Abstract Predator-prey relationships can be influenced by environmental conditions, including changes in moon phase and associated lunar illumination. Two primary hypotheses have been proposed underlying the effects of moonlight on predator-prey interactions: the predation risk hypothesis and visual acuity hypothesis. However, few studies have tested these hypotheses during twilight hours or involved large mobile aquatic species. In the present study, we evaluated these hypotheses using data collected over 16 years on predator-prey interactions between white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) and Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) at sunrise. Data from 1476 natural predation events demonstrated shark attack frequency and seal capture success was significantly higher at sunrise during periods of low (0–10 %) versus high (90–100 %) lunar illumination, which is consistent with the visual acuity hypothesis. We propose that during full moon periods, white sharks at night are at a visual and tactical advantage over seals which are silhouetted at the surface in the moonlight and thus easier to isolate in darkness, while sharks remain camouflaged hunting from below through deep water. However, at sunrise, we hypothesize this advantage shifts to seals as the added lunar illumination, combined with emerging sunlight, may decrease shark stealth and increase the ability of seals to detect and avoid sharks. These finding suggest that lunar effects on predator-prey dynamics can be context specific, likely moderated by visual acuity of predators and prey which may change according to the photoperiod.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0378-1909 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3141  
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Author Horrace, W.C.; Rohlin, S.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title How Dark Is Dark? Bright Lights, Big City, Racial Profiling Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Review of Economics and Statistics Abbreviated Journal Review of Economics and Statistics  
  Volume (down) 98 Issue 2 Pages 226-232  
  Keywords Psychology; Public Safety; Society  
  Abstract Grogger and Ridgeway (2006) use the daylight saving time shift to develop a police racial profiling test that is based on differences in driver race visibility and (hence) the race distribution of traffic stops across daylight and darkness. However, urban environments may be well lit at night, eroding the power of their test. We refine their test using streetlight location data in Syracuse, New York, and the results change in the direction of finding profiling of black drivers. Our preferred specification suggests that the odds of a black driver being stopped (relative to nonblack drivers) increase 15% in daylight compared to darkness.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-6535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2167  
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Author Le Tallec, T.; Théry, M.; Perret, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Melatonin concentrations and timing of seasonal reproduction in male mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) exposed to light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal J of Mammalogy  
  Volume (down) 97 Issue 3 Pages 753-760  
  Keywords Animals; light pollution; photobiology; core temperature; locomotor activity; melatonin; Microcebus murinus; primate; testosterone; lemurs; mouse lemur  
  Abstract Adverse effects of light at night are associated with human health problems and with changes in seasonal reproduction in several species. Owing to its role in the circadian timing system, melatonin production is suspected to mediate excess nocturnal light. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of light pollution on the timing of seasonal reproduction on a strict Malagasy long-day breeder, the nocturnal mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). We randomly exposed 12 males in wintering sexual rest to moonlight or to a light-mimicking nocturnal streetlight for 5 weeks. We monitored urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations (aMT6s), plasma testosterone concentrations, and testis size, and we recorded daily rhythms of core temperature and locomotor activity. In males exposed to light pollution, we observed a significant decrease in urinary aMT6s concentrations associated with changes in daily rhythm profiles and with activation of reproductive function. These results showed that males entered spontaneous sexual recrudescence leading to a summer acclimatization state, which suggests that light at night disrupts perception of day length cues, leading to an inappropriate photoentrainment of seasonal rhythms.  
  Address UMR 7179 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle , 1 avenue du petit château, 91800 Brunoy, France; thery(at)mnhn.fr  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford University Press Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1348  
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Author Liefting, M.; Cosijn, J.; Ellers, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Synergistic effect of daily temperature fluctuations and matching light-dark cycle enhances population growth and synchronizes oviposition behavior in a soil arthropod Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Insect Physiology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Insect Physiology  
  Volume (down) 96 Issue in press Pages 108-114  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Some major aspects of insect life, like development time and reproduction, can benefit from fluctuating temperatures rather than a constant temperature regime. The benefit of fluctuating temperature has generally been attributed to the non-linear properties of the relationship of many life history traits with temperature. Daily temperature rise, however, usually coincide with the light phase of the photoperiodic cycle and there could be a benefit in linking daily temperature fluctuations with light and dark phases e.g. to anticipate the change in temperature. Such synergistic effects have primarily been studied in the light of activity patterns and gene expression, but have not yet been shown to extend to population dynamics and aspects of individual fitness like oviposition behavior. We therefore explored possible synergistic effects on life history traits of the springtail Orchesella cincta. We first test the primary effect of ecologically relevant temperature fluctuations of different amplitudes on population growth and total population mass. The slowest population growth was observed in the constant temperature regime treatment and the highest population growth in the regime with high amplitude fluctuations. In a second experiment, population growth and oviposition rhythm were measured under four different regimes; a constant light and temperature regime, thermoperiod only, photoperiod only and thermoperiod and photoperiod aligned as under natural conditions. The regime in which thermoperiod was aligned with photoperiod resulted in a higher population growth than could be realized by either factor alone. Also, significantly fewer eggs were laid in the constant temperature/light regime than in the other three regimes, strongly suggesting that this regime is stressful to O. cincta. Additionally, the fraction of eggs laid at night was highest in the regime with the combined temperature and light cycle. In conclusion, our results show that under these experimental conditions there is a synergistic effect of daily temperature fluctuations in combination with light/dark phases that can considerably influence important life history traits and affect behavior. Such effects are likely to be relevant under natural conditions.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-1910 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1542  
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