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Author Raap, T.; Casasole, G.; Costantini, D.; AbdElgawad, H.; Asard, H.; Pinxten, R.; Eens, M.
Title Artificial light at night affects body mass but not oxidative status in free-living nestling songbirds: an experimental study Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci. Rep.
Volume (up) 6 Issue Pages 35626
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN), termed light pollution, is an increasingly important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife. Exposure to unnatural lighting environments may have profound effects on animal physiology, particularly during early life. Here, we experimentally investigated for the first time the impact of ALAN on body mass and oxidative status during development, using nestlings of a free-living songbird, the great tit (Parus major), an important model species. Body mass and blood oxidative status were determined at baseline (=13 days after hatching) and again after a two night exposure to ALAN. Because it is very difficult to generalise the oxidative status from one or two measures we relied on a multi-biomarker approach. We determined multiple metrics of both antioxidant defences and oxidative damage: molecular antioxidants GSH, GSSG; antioxidant enzymes GPX, SOD, CAT; total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and damage markers protein carbonyls and TBARS. Light exposed nestlings showed no increase in body mass, in contrast to unexposed individuals. None of the metrics of oxidative status were affected. Nonetheless, our study provides experimental field evidence that ALAN may negatively affect free-living nestlings’ development and hence may have adverse consequences lasting throughout adulthood.
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ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1543
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Author Jan Stenvers, D.; van Dorp, R.; Foppen, E.; Mendoza, J.; Opperhuizen, A.-L.; Fliers, E.; Bisschop, P.H.; Meijer, J.H.; Kalsbeek, A.; Deboer, T.
Title Dim light at night disturbs the daily sleep-wake cycle in the rat Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume (up) 6 Issue Pages 35662
Keywords Animals
Abstract Exposure to light at night (LAN) is associated with insomnia in humans. Light provides the main input to the master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that coordinates the sleep-wake cycle. We aimed to develop a rodent model for the effects of LAN on sleep. Therefore, we exposed male Wistar rats to either a 12 h light (150-200lux):12 h dark (LD) schedule or a 12 h light (150-200 lux):12 h dim white light (5 lux) (LDim) schedule. LDim acutely decreased the amplitude of daily rhythms of REM and NREM sleep, with a further decrease over the following days. LDim diminished the rhythms of 1) the circadian 16-19 Hz frequency domain within the NREM sleep EEG, and 2) SCN clock gene expression. LDim also induced internal desynchronization in locomotor activity by introducing a free running rhythm with a period of ~25 h next to the entrained 24 h rhythm. LDim did not affect body weight or glucose tolerance. In conclusion, we introduce the first rodent model for disturbed circadian control of sleep due to LAN. We show that internal desynchronization is possible in a 24 h L:D cycle which suggests that a similar desynchronization may explain the association between LAN and human insomnia.
Address Laboratory for Neurophysiology, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
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ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:27762290 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1547
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Author Kang, S.-G.; Yoon, H.-K.; Cho, C.-H.; Kwon, S.; Kang, J.; Park, Y.-M.; Lee, E.; Kim, L.; Lee, H.-J.
Title Decrease in fMRI brain activation during working memory performed after sleeping under 10 lux light Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume (up) 6 Issue Pages 36731
Keywords Human Health
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) when sleeping on functional brain activation during a working-memory tasks. We conducted the brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis on 20 healthy male subjects. All participants slept in a polysomnography laboratory without light exposure on the first and second nights and under a dim-light condition of either 5 or 10 lux on the third night. The fMRI scanning was conducted during n-back tasks after second and third nights. Statistical parametric maps revealed less activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) after exposure to 10-lux light. The brain activity in the right and left IFG areas decreased more during the 2-back task than during the 1- or 0-back task in the 10-lux group. The exposure to 5-lux light had no significant effect on brain activities. The exposure to dLAN might influence the brain function which is related to the cognition.
Address Department of Psychiatry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
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ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:27827445; PMCID:PMC5101482 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1560
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Author Peng, C.; Wang, M.; Chen, W.
Title Spatial Analysis of PAHs in Soils along an Urban-Suburban-Rural Gradient: scale effect, distribution patterns, diffusion and influencing factors Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume (up) 6 Issue Pages 37185
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Spatial statistical methods including Cokriging interpolation, Morans I analysis, and geographically weighted regression (GWR) were used for studying the spatial characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) accumulation in urban, suburban, and rural soils of Beijing. The concentrations of PAHs decreased spatially as the level of urbanization decreased. Generally, PAHs in soil showed two spatial patterns on the regional scale: (1) regional baseline depositions with a radius of 16.5 km related to the level of urbanization and (2) isolated pockets of soil contaminated with PAHs were found up to around 3.5 km from industrial point sources. In the urban areas, soil PAHs showed high spatial heterogeneity on the block scale, which was probably related to vegetation cover, land use, and physical soil disturbance. The distribution of total PAHs in urban blocks was unrelated to the indicators of the intensity of anthropogenic activity, namely population density, light intensity at night, and road density, but was significantly related to the same indicators in the suburban and rural areas. The moving averages of molecular ratios suggested that PAHs in the suburban and rural soils were a mix of local emissions and diffusion from urban areas.
Address State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, People's Republic of China
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Notes PMID:27853179 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1561
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Author Cho, E.; Oh, J.H.; Lee, E.; Do, Y.R.; Kim, E.Y.
Title Cycles of circadian illuminance are sufficient to entrain and maintain circadian locomotor rhythms in Drosophila Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume (up) 6 Issue Pages 37784
Keywords Animals
Abstract Light at night disrupts the circadian clock and causes serious health problems in the modern world. Here, we show that newly developed four-package light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can provide harmless lighting at night. To quantify the effects of light on the circadian clock, we employed the concept of circadian illuminance (CIL). CIL represents the amount of light weighted toward the wavelengths to which the circadian clock is most sensitive, whereas visual illuminance (VIL) represents the total amount of visible light. Exposure to 12 h:12 h cycles of white LED light with high and low CIL values but a constant VIL value (conditions hereafter referred to as CH/CL) can entrain behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms in flies. Moreover, flies re-entrain to phase shift in the CH/CL cycle. Core-clock proteins are required for the rhythmic behaviors seen with this LED lighting scheme. Taken together, this study provides a guide for designing healthful white LED lights for use at night, and proposes the use of the CIL value for estimating the harmful effects of any light source on organismal health.
Address Neuroscience Graduate Program, BK21 Plus Program, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164 Worldcup-ro, Suwon, 16499, Republic of Korea
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27883065; PMCID:PMC5121609 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1565
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