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Author Justice, M.J.; Justice, T.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Attraction of Insects to Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent, Halogen, and Led Lamps in a Light Trap: Implications for Light Pollution and Urban Ecologies Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Entomological News Abbreviated Journal Entomological News  
  Volume 125 Issue 5 Pages 315-326  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract The widespread use of electric lamps has created “ecological light pollution” and “artificial light ecology.” Given the important role of insects in ecosystems, how they are affected by light pollution deserves attention. Lamps designed for lighting small areas around residences are used in abundance, but studies specifically examining them are scarce. This study used a light trap to capture insects for 60 summer nights in a suburban town in Virginia, USA. During each night of trapping, one of five different light bulbs was used in the trap (incandescent, compact fluorescent, halogen, warm color temperature LED, or cool color temperature LED). The data suggest that fewer insects overall are attracted to bulbs using LED technology than bulbs using incandescent technology. This difference was also observed in the orders Lepidoptera and Diptera. These results support the use of LED bulbs to reduce the insect attraction and mortality caused by the use of artificial lights at night.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0013-872X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1419  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Altermatt, F.; Ebert, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Reduced flight-to-light behaviour of moth populations exposed to long-term urban light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biol Lett  
  Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 20160111  
  Keywords Lepidoptera; Yponomeuta; adaptation; environmental change; natural selection  
  Abstract The globally increasing light pollution is a well-recognized threat to ecosystems, with negative effects on human, animal and plant wellbeing. The most well-known and widely documented consequence of light pollution is the generally fatal attraction of nocturnal insects to artificial light sources. However, the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Here we report that moth populations from urban areas with high, globally relevant levels of light pollution over several decades show a significantly reduced flight-to-light behaviour compared with populations of the same species from pristine dark-sky habitats. Using a common garden setting, we reared moths from 10 different populations from early-instar larvae and experimentally compared their flight-to-light behaviour under standardized conditions. Moths from urban populations had a significant reduction in the flight-to-light behaviour compared with pristine populations. The reduced attraction to light sources of 'city moths' may directly increase these individuals' survival and reproduction. We anticipate that it comes with a reduced mobility, which negatively affects foraging as well as colonization ability. As nocturnal insects are of eminent significance as pollinators and the primary food source of many vertebrates, an evolutionary change of the flight-to-light behaviour thereby potentially cascades across species interaction networks.  
  Address Department of Environmental Sciences, Zoology, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, 4051 Basel, Switzerland  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1744-9561 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27072407 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1420  
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Author Rund, S.; O'Donnell, A.; Gentile, J.; Reece, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Daily Rhythms in Mosquitoes and Their Consequences for Malaria Transmission Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Insects Abbreviated Journal Insects  
  Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 14  
  Keywords Animals; Human Health  
  Abstract The 24-h day involves cycles in environmental factors that impact organismal fitness. This is thought to select for organisms to regulate their temporal biology accordingly, through circadian and diel rhythms. In addition to rhythms in abiotic factors (such as light and temperature), biotic factors, including ecological interactions, also follow daily cycles. How daily rhythms shape, and are shaped by, interactions between organisms is poorly understood. Here, we review an emerging area, namely the causes and consequences of daily rhythms in the interactions between vectors, their hosts and the parasites they transmit. We focus on mosquitoes, malaria parasites and vertebrate hosts, because this system offers the opportunity to integrate from genetic and molecular mechanisms to population dynamics and because disrupting rhythms offers a novel avenue for disease control.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2075-4450 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1421  
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Author Watson, M.J.; Wilson, D.R.; Mennill, D.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Anthropogenic light is associated with increased vocal activity by nocturnally migrating birds Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication The Condor Abbreviated Journal The Condor  
  Volume 118 Issue 2 Pages 338-344  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Anthropogenic modifications to the natural environment have profound effects on wild animals, through structural changes to natural ecosystems as well as anthropogenic disturbances such as light and noise. For animals that migrate nocturnally, anthropogenic light can interfere with migration routes, flight altitudes, and social activities that accompany migration, such as acoustic communication. We investigated the effect of anthropogenic light on nocturnal migration of birds through the Great Lakes ecosystem. Specifically, we recorded the vocal activity of migrating birds and compared the number of nocturnal flight calls produced above rural areas with ground-level artificial lights compared to nearby areas without lights. We show that more nocturnal flight calls are detected over artificially lit areas. The median number of nocturnal flight calls recorded at sites with artificial lights (31 per night, interquartile range: 15–135) was 3 times higher than at nearby sites without artificial lights (11 per night, interquartile range: 4–39). By contrast, the number of species detected at lit and unlit sites did not differ significantly (artificially lit sites: 6.5 per night, interquartile range: 5.0–8.8; unlit sites: 4.5 per night, interquartile range: 2.0–7.0). We conclude that artificial lighting changes the behavior of nocturnally migrating birds. The increased detections could be a result of ground-level light sources altering bird behavior during migration. For example, birds might have changed their migratory route to pass over lit areas, flown at lower altitudes over lit areas, increased their calling rate over lit areas, or remained longer over lit areas. Our results for ground-level lights correspond to previous findings demonstrating that migratory birds are influenced by lights on tall structures.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0010-5422 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1422  
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Author Sharma, R.C.; Tateishi, R.; Hara, K.; Gharechelou, S.; Iizuka, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Global mapping of urban built-up areas of year 2014 by combining MODIS multispectral data with VIIRS nighttime light data Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication International Journal of Digital Earth Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Digital Earth  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-17  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract An improved methodology for the extraction and mapping of urban built-up areas at a global scale is presented in this study. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based multispectral data were combined with the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)-based nighttime light (NTL) data for robust extraction and mapping of urban built-up areas. The MODIS-based newly proposed Urban Built-up Index (UBI) was combined with NTL data, and the resulting Enhanced UBI (EUBI) was used as a single master image for global extraction of urban built-up areas. Due to higher variation of the EUBI with respect to geographical regions, a region-specific threshold approach was used to extract urban built-up areas. This research provided 500-m-resolution global urban built-up map of year 2014. The resulted map was compared with three existing moderate-resolution global maps and one high-resolution map in the United States. The comparative analysis demonstrated finer details of the urban built-up cover estimated by the resultant map.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1753-8947 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1423  
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