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Author (up) Ahn, J.; Ahn, S.-E.; Yang, K.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Oh, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of a high level of illumination before sleep at night on chorioretinal thickness and ocular biometry Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Experimental eye Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Eye Res  
  Volume 164 Issue Pages 157-167  
  Keywords Vision  
  Abstract The choroid is affected by many factors. One of the factors, change in illumination has been suggested to influence choroidal thickness. However, the effects of bright light before sleep at night on the human eye are not well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a high level of illumination in the evening on ocular measurements. Twenty-seven men with myopia spent seven consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. During the first two nights, subjects were exposed to light at 150 lux between 20:00 and midnight. Then, for five consecutive nights, they were exposed to ambient light at 1000 lux between 20:00 and midnight. Ocular parameters and their diurnal variations were compared between the two periods and the effects of a high level of illumination were analyzed. After subjects were exposed to 1000 lux of illumination, axial length increased with borderline significance (p = 0.064). Macular volume and retinal thickness did not change. However, subfoveal choroidal thickness after exposure to 1000 lux of illumination (245.37 +/- 52.84 mum) was significantly lower than that after 150 lux of illumination (268.00 +/- 57.10 mum), (p < 0.001). Significant diurnal variations were found in mean keratometry (p = 0.039), intraocular pressure (IOP, p = 0.003), ocular perfusion pressure (OPP, p < 0.0001), macular volume (p = 0.019), and subfoveal choroidal thickness (p < 0.0001). A high level of illumination had significant effects on only IOP and OPP (p = 0.027 and 0.017, respectively). Bright light exposure before sleep at an intensity as high as 1000 lux reduced subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy young men. In conclusion, diurnal variation in choroidal thickness can be affected by bright light exposure before sleep.  
  Address Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University College of Medicine, 73, Inchon-ro, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, South Korea. Electronic address: ojr4991@korea.ac.kr  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0014-4835 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28887137 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1729  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Alamús, R.; Bará, S.; Corbera, J.; Escofet, J.; Palà, V.; Pipia, L.; Tardà, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Ground-based hyperspectral analysis of the urban nightscape Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing  
  Volume 124 Issue Pages 16-26  
  Keywords Instrumentation; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Airborne hyperspectral cameras provide the basic information to estimate the energy wasted skywards by outdoor lighting systems, as well as to locate and identify their sources. However, a complete characterization of the urban light pollution levels also requires evaluating these effects from the city dwellers standpoint, e.g. the energy waste associated to the excessive illuminance on walls and pavements, light trespass, or the luminance distributions causing potential glare, to mention but a few. On the other hand, the spectral irradiance at the entrance of the human eye is the primary input to evaluate the possible health effects associated with the exposure to artificial light at night, according to the more recent models available in the literature. In this work we demonstrate the possibility of using a hyperspectral imager (routinely used in airborne campaigns) to measure the ground-level spectral radiance of the urban nightscape and to retrieve several magnitudes of interest for light pollution studies. We also present the preliminary results from a field campaign carried out in the downtown of Barcelona.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0924-2716 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1613  
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Author (up) Albreiki, Mohammed S. url  openurl
  Title The effects of light at night and/or melatonin on hormones, metabo- lites, appetite control, vascular function, and behavioural responses. Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication University of Surrey Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume in press Issue in press Pages in press  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Light at night (LAN) is a major factor in disruption of SCN function, including melatonin suppression. Melatonin has been linked to a variety of biological processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, vascular parameters, appetite, and behaviour. However, few human studies have investigated the effect of LAN and suppressed melatonin prior to and after an evening meal. The current thesis aims to investigate the impact of light at night and/or mela- tonin on hormones, metabolites, appetite, vascular function, and behaviour prior to and after an evening test meal in healthy participants. The first study investigated the effect of dim or bright light conditions on hor- mones, metabolites, appetite, vascular function and behavioural responses. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were reduced, lipid profiles altered and salivary melatonin suppressed under bright light compared to dim light conditions. Subjec- tive mood was improved and appetite scores increased in bright light. No differences were seen in vascular parameters. Although clear differences were apparent it could not be determined whether the effects were due to the light at night, the absence of melatonin or a combination of the two. The second study involved three conditions with the administration of exogenous melatonin 90 mins before the evening test meal under bright and dim light conditions compared to bright light alone with the consequent melatonin suppression. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were reduced and lipid profile altered in bright light when melatonin was suppressed compared to the two conditions with exogenous melatonin. Mood was improved and appetite increased with lower leptin levels and elevated wrist temperature with bright light and suppressed melatonin. Statistical analysis showed that the major effects were due to melatonin. These studies demonstrate a possible role for melatonin in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism when eating late at night which may have implications for shift-workers.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1747  
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Author (up) Alessandro Manfrin, Gabriel Singer, Stefano Larsen, Nadine Weiss, Roy H. A. van Grunsven, Nina-Sophie Weiss, Stefanie Wohlfahrt, Michael T. Monaghan and Franz Hölker url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night affects organism flux across ecosystem boundaries and drives community structure in the recipient ecosystem Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Frontiers in Environmental Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume in press Issue in press Pages in press  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a widespread alteration of the natural environment that can affect the functioning of ecosystems. ALAN can change the movement patterns of freshwater animals that move into the adjacent riparian and terrestrial ecosystems, but the implications for local riparian consumers that rely on these subsidies are still unexplored. We conducted a two-year field experiment to quantify changes of freshwater-terrestrial linkages by installing streetlights in a previously light-native riparian area adjacent to an agricultural drainage ditch. We compared the abundance and community composition of emerging aquatic insects, flying insects, and ground-dwelling arthropods with an unlit control site. Comparisons were made within and between years using generalized least squares and a BACI design (Before-After Control-Impact). Aquatic insect emergence, the proportion of flying insects that were aquatic in origin, and the total abundance of flying insects all increased in the ALAN-illuminated area. The abundance of several night-active ground-dwelling predators (Pachygnatha clercki, Trochosa sp., Opiliones) increased under ALAN and their activity was extended into the day. Conversely, the abundance of nocturnal ground beetles (Carabidae) decreased under ALAN. The changes in composition of riparian predator and scavenger communities suggest that the increase in aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidy flux may cascade through the riparian food web. The work is among the first studies to experimentally manipulate ALAN using a large-scale field experiment, and provides evidence that ALAN can affect processes that link adjacent ecosystems. Given the large number of streetlights that are installed along shorelines of freshwater bodies throughout the globe, the effects could be widespread and represent an underestimated source of impairment for both aquatic and riparian systems.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1746  
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Author (up) Benedetto, M.M.; Guido, M.E.; Contin, M.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Non-Visual Photopigments Effects of Constant Light-Emitting Diode Light Exposure on the Inner Retina of Wistar Rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Frontiers in Neurology Abbreviated Journal Front Neurol  
  Volume 8 Issue Pages 417  
  Keywords changes in retinal structure; light-emitting diode light; non-visual opsin localization; retinal degeneration models; retinal light damage  
  Abstract The retina is part of the central nervous system specially adapted to capture light photons and transmit this information to the brain through photosensitive retinal cells involved in visual and non-visual activities. However, excessive light exposure may accelerate genetic retinal diseases or induce photoreceptor cell (PRC) death, finally leading to retinal degeneration (RD). Light pollution (LP) caused by the characteristic use of artificial light in modern day life may accelerate degenerative diseases or promote RD and circadian desynchrony. We have developed a working model to study RD mechanisms in a low light environment using light-emitting diode (LED) sources, at constant or long exposure times under LP conditions. The mechanism of PRC death is still not fully understood. Our main goal is to study the biochemical mechanisms of RD. We have previously demonstrated that constant light (LL) exposure to white LED produces a significant reduction in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) by classical PRC death after 7 days of LL exposure. The PRCs showed TUNEL-positive labeling and a caspase-3-independent mechanism of cell death. Here, we investigate whether constant LED exposure affects the inner-retinal organization and structure, cell survival and the expression of photopigments; in particular we look into whether constant LED exposure causes the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), of intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs), or of other inner-retinal cells. Wistar rats exposed to 200 lx of LED for 2 to 8 days (LL 2 and LL 8) were processed for histological and protein. The results show no differences in the number of nucleus or TUNEL positive RGCs nor inner structural damage in any of LL groups studied, indicating that LL exposure affects ONL but does not produce RGC death. However, the photopigments melanopsin (OPN4) and neuropsin (OPN5) expressed in the inner retina were seen to modify their localization and expression during LL exposure. Our findings suggest that constant light during several days produces retinal remodeling and ONL cell death as well as significant changes in opsin expression in the inner nuclear layer.  
  Address Centro de Investigaciones en Quimica Biologica de Cordoba (CIQUIBIC), CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba, Argentina  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1664-2295 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28871236; PMCID:PMC5566984 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1711  
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